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Imperialism

USS Maine
an American battleship that exploded in Cuban territory, killing Americans; was the spark for the Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War
the explosion of the USS Maine triggered this event

yellow journalism
newspapers that were used to convince Americans to go to war with Spain though propaganda

Guam, Philippines, Puerto Rico
lands the US gained after the Spanish-American War

Open Door policy
a set of principles created by John Hay that asserted equal economic access to China w/other countries; reflected commercial effects on American foreign affairs

Emilo Aguinaldo
a Filipino leader who led an anti-Spanish movement; later led a bloody guerilla war against the US due to anger over the peace treaty

Spanish-American War
a conflict fought for the liberation of Cuba as well as economic interests (naval ports, expansion); America wins and gets Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, securing Cuban indep.

Panama Canal
a construction project secured with an internal ‘revolution’ against the Columbian govt; motive was to gain easier passage through South America

Roosevelt Corollary
an addition to the Monroe Doctrine that asserted the US’s right to intervene in cases of ‘wrongdoing’

dollar diplomacy
Taft’s policy; the use of money to solve foreign issues (ie Nicaragua)

Big Stick Diplomacy
TR’s foreign policy approach; using military force to solve issues

Gentleman’s Agreement
treaty btw. Japan and US; said that no Japanese could immigrate from Tokyo; reflected w/segregation of SF schools

high tariffs, naval base, sugar plantations
why the US wanted Hawaii

expansion, naval ports
why the US wanted the Philippines

canal, easier transport, no taxes
why the US wanted Panama

internal revolution with Philippe-Buneau, treaty
how the US intervened in Panama

missionaries, Open Door policy, suppressed Boxer Rebellion
how the US intervened in China

JP Morgan
an investment banker who lent money to European powers despite American “neutrality”

Platt Amendment
put Cuba under American control; let US intervene in Cuban affairs

McKinley Tariff
This tariff raised barriers against Hawaiian sugar imports in 1890, leading to economic troubles and unrest among the white settlers.

Teller Amendment
This proviso was passed after Congress essentially declared war on Spain for its actions in Cuba. This legislation declared to the world that the US had overthrown Spanish misrule and would give Cubans their freedom. The US honored it in 1902, and withdrew from Cuba.

Rough Riders
This group, part of the invading US army in Cuba, were mostly enthusiastic volunteers, largely western cowboys, with a few ex-convicts and wealthier men seeking adventure.They were commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood, and organized principally by Theodore Roosevelt. They came to be known as “Wood’s Weary Walkers” when they left their horses in Florida in their rush to get to Cuba.

Anti-Imperialist League
Formed in response to US imperialism. They argued that to annex the Philippines would violate the “consent of the governed” philosophy of the Declaration of Inddependence. It included some of the most prominent Americans such as Mark Twain, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie.

Guantanamo Bay
A US coaling/naval station located in Cuba as part of the Platt Amendment, which was included in the new Cuban constitution.

William McKinley
25th president, Republican, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism

Purchase of Alaska
(1867) purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, instigated by William Steward. Was significant because it ridded the continent of another foreign power.

De Lôme Letter
Letter written by a Spanish Minister from the Spanish Embassy in DC to Havana. The letter was intercepted by Cuban revolutionaries and released to American newspapers. In the letter, the minister denounced President McKinley. The event fired up McKinley and fomented public sentiment against the Spanish, contributing to the outbreak of the Spanish-American war.

USS Maine
The sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898 in the Havana Harbor precipitated the Spanish-American War and also popularized the phrase Remember the Maine!

Philippines
an island nation in Southeast Asia. The United States gained possession of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War in 1898 and the Philippine-American War in 1899. The U.S. ruled the country for about five decades.

Puerto Rico and Guam
Under the Treaty of Paris following the Spanish-American War, the US annexed Puerto Rico Guam, which was placed under the administration of the US Navy.

Boxer Rebellion (1900)
A secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.

Panama Canal
Built to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.

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